Construction & Demolition Debris Landfills:

A construction and demolition debris landfill (C&DD) is an engineered site for disposing of material from manmade physical structures such as homes, office buildings, etc. They are constructed to reduce risk to public health and safety; include odor, leachate, surface water, fire, and vector (animal and insect) controls; and groundwater monitoring.

These facilities are licensed annually by the Hamilton County General Health District as an Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) approved health district. Facilities are also randomly inspected to:

  • ensure general operational compliance with approved plans
  • identify potential and actual nuisance issues
  • review facility logs and paperwork
  • survey site for leachate seepage, erosion, ponding, and surface water diversion
  • inspect for noise, odor, vector, litter, and fire controls
  • review unloading, separating, spreading, and compacting procedures
  • check for acceptance of approved waste types

What types of materials do C&DD landfills include? 
Construction and Demolition Debris – materials from houses, buildings, roadways, and industrial and commercial facilities (i.e. concrete, brick, masonry, stone, glass, asphalt, dry wall, plaster, paneling lumber, plumbing fixtures, insulation, roofing materials and wiring)

Clean Hard Fill – materials such as concrete, stone, brick, block, and tile which can be reused as construction materials if not disposed of at a construction and demolition debris or solid waste landfill. An Intent to Fill (link to form) notification with the Health District is required whenever these materials are reused as construction fill.

Unacceptable Materials:

  • solid waste
  • yard waste
  • furniture
  • appliances
  • tires
  • batteries
  • hazardous and infectious waste
  • liquids


Construction & Demolition Debris Landfill Licenses:


Sanitary or Municipal Landfills:

A sanitary landfill is an engineered site for disposing of refuse on land. Sanitary landfills are constructed to reduce the risk to public health and safety. These facilities are permitted by the Ohio EPA and are licensed annually by the Health District. Sanitary landfills are inspected randomly to:

  • ensure general operational compliance with approved plans
  • identify potential and actual nuisance issues
  • review facility logs and paperwork
  • survey site for leachate seepage, erosion, ponding and surface water diversion
  • inspect for noise, odor, vector, litter and fire controls
  • review unloading, spreading, and compacting procedures
  • check for acceptance of approved waste types

Sanitary landfills feature health and safety design controls including:

Leachate Control

  • Bottom liner – impermeable layer which prohibits movement of leachate into ground water
  • Leachate collection system – collects liquid (rain water, snow melt) that percolates through waste

Methane Gas Control 

  • Gas collection system – collects gases created when decomposition of waste occurs

Other Controls

  • Covering – controls litter, odor, leachate, and vectors (insects & animals)
  • Monitoring – groundwater, surface water, and landfill gas (methane)

The following materials are accepted at sanitary landfills: 

  • solid waste, garbage
  • any household or commercial solid or semi-solid materials

Unacceptable materials: 

  • yard waste
  • hazardous and infectious waste
  • liquids
  • tires


Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Licenses:

April 8, 2021


Use of this site for waste disposal dates back to the 1960’s. Formerly a captive industrial waste landfill for Monsanto – Addyston, in 1999 the site was transferred to Bond Road Site Inc., which was later acquired in 2001 by Rumpke.  The site consists of approximately 128 acres, with 60 acres permitted for disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).  The site has been relatively dormant over the past two decades receiving 1-2 loads of waste per year.  This has been in part due to roads serving the site which are difficult for truck traffic to navigate.

Facility Boundary

On February 19, 2021 Rumpke submitted a permit alteration request to Ohio EPA.  This alteration would incorporate additional property, recently acquired by Rumpke, into the current facility boundary with access to Sand Run Road, presumably a better suited road for truck traffic.  At this time, the increase in facility boundary to approximately 575 acres is the only change being proposed.  Ohio EPA is reviewing the alteration request and has notified Rumpke of minor deficiencies.

Until 2011, the Authorized Maximum Daily Waste Receipt (AMDWR) limit was 4000 tons/day, the current AMDWR is 100 tons/day.  The total remaining capacity of the site is approximately 7.3 million cubic yards.  In comparison, Rumpke Sanitary Landfill – in Colerain Township has approximately 118 million cubic yards of remaining capacity.  Figure 1 (attached), provided by Rumpke, best illustrates the proposed changes, with additional information available at Rumpke’s website:

To increase the volume of waste received, there are a number of permits the facility would need to apply for and receive. Many of these require an opportunity for citizen input. Ohio EPA maintains interested parties lists for sites of interest. If an Ohio EPA public hearing for any application under consideration is held, notifications are sent to those who wish to be apprised.  One may make contact with the Public Interest Center – below, to be added to the list for this site.  Major modifications generally include publishing notice of public meetings/hearings in the newspaper and on Ohio EPA’s website.

Ohio EPA is required to issue permits to applicants who meet the requirement of the law, the Agency is not permitted to consider an application’s popularity.

New landfill sitings and expansions require at least the following permits and licenses:

  • Solid waste permit to install, Ohio EPA, this authorizes the landfill’s construction to engineering specifications and describes daily operation including total amount of waste to be received;
  • Stormwater plan, Ohio EPA, this spells out how stormwater that falls on the site will be treated;
  • Wastewater permit to install, Ohio EPA, a document that describes the engineering of how liquid generated by the landfill will be treated;
  • Wastewater discharge permit, Ohio EPA, also known as an NPDES permit, sets limits for the amount of pollutants that can be present in discharged wastewater;
  • Air permit, Southwest Ohio Air Quality Agency (SOAQA) and Ohio EPA, sets limits for the amount of air pollution for all regulated sources including gas flares and dust from roadways; and
  • License to operate, Ohio EPA or authorized county health department (Hamilton County is an approved health department).

Additionally, new landfills and expansions may require the following:

  • Army Corps of Engineers and/or Ohio EPA 404/401 permitting, if streams or wetlands are to be filled or altered;
  • Approval from U.S. Fish and Wildlife;
  • Local zoning approval.


Ohio EPA has additional information regarding municipal solid waste landfills posted on their website: Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (

Including guidance documents addressing:

Siting Criteria
Authorizations Necessary to Establish a Solid Waste Facility
Solid Waste Landfill Permit-to-Install Process
Getting Involved in the Permitting Process


Questions regarding the review of the alteration request may be directed to:

Yingjia Zhu, District Engineer
Division of Materials and Waste Management
Ohio EPA
401 E. 5th Street
Dayton, Ohio 45402
Phone: (937) 285-6357


Public Interest Center – Citizen contact:
Heather Lauer
Ohio EPA
50 W. Town St., Suite 700
PO Box 1049
Columbus, OH 43216-1049
Phone: (614) 644-2160

What agencies are involved with Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills? Ohio EPA reviews engineering plans and coordinates with local air agencies regarding air permits and air related issues and health departments to handle questions about odors and ongoing operational aspects of landfills.

Questions regarding Ohio EPA’s role with MSW landfills should be directed to the following:

General Questions/Interested Party List:                                 
Heather Lauer
Public Interest Center
Ohio EPA

Air-related Questions:    
Kerri Castlen, Manager
Hamilton County Department of Environmental Services
Southwest Ohio Air Quality Agency

Landfill Operation Questions: 
Chuck DeJonckheere
Director of Waste Management
Hamilton County Public Health

Who responds to odor complaints for this site? In recent history, there have not been odor complaints related to the Bond Road Landfill.  If there are complaints, they may be called into 513-946-7879, or submitted via the web at: File a Complaint – Air Quality Agency (

Who is responsible for air monitoring for the site?  Any need for air monitoring would be addressed by the Southwest Ohio Air Quality Agency. Southwest Ohio Air Quality Home Page – Air Quality Agency

What trucks come into the site?  Incoming waste is generally in rear or front loader packer trucks, roll-off, or dump trucks.

What trucks leave the site?  Same as above.  In addition, outgoing leachate is by tanker truck.

What effect will air contaminants have on cisterns?  Properly designed and operated cisterns include a minimum of one above-ground roof washer/diverter and debris filtering device or a combination type of device.  Water obtained from cisterns shall be continuously disinfected and filtered.

What did Monsanto dispose of at this site?  The material disposed at this site by Monsanto meets the definition of solid waste and would be acceptable for disposal today. Here is a list of items reported as disposed at the facility during Monsanto’s ownership/operation: Paper bags, cardboard, and other similar paper items, wood, FOME-COR scrap, Polymerized polystyrene; styrene acrylonitrile co-polymers; and acrylonitrile, butadiene, styrene ter-polymers, partially polymerized styrene syrup, polystyrene emulsion, floor sweepings, pipe, nuts, bolts, nails, vacuum filter cake sludge from the wastewater treatment plant, ABS plastic. Ground water monitoring has been ongoing at the site on a semi-annual basis.

How is the county assessing the impacts to the water system in the area?  Permitting for installation, stormwater planning, and wastewater are all issued by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Surface Water (

How is the county assessing the impacts to the residential homes AND schools in the area?  The facility has been issued a permit to operate by the Ohio EPA.  As a local health department, we are responsible for responding to any complaints about potential health hazards which may be generated by the facility.

What agency is in charge of responding to any spills or wastewater leaking from trucks?  Any major spill should be reported to the Ohio EPA. Office of Emergency Response ( Instances of dripping water during transport can be reported to Hamilton County Public Health at 513-946-7879; or contact Rumpke.

What changes are included with the current alteration request?
The current alteration request to Ohio EPA is a revision to facility boundaries to incorporate additional acreage recently acquired by Rumpke.

Does the Board of Health take a stance for or against a facility?
The Board of Health is the licensing agency for landfills.  As such, it only looks at plans and compliance when issuing a license.

Local and state agencies are currently monitoring a subsurface reaction at Rumpke Sanitary Landfill in Colerain Township. Hamilton County Public Health (HCPH) has been part of a team comprised of Ohio EPA, U.S. EPA, Hamilton County Department of Environmental Services (HCDOES) and Colerain Fire Department – representing Colerain Township involved in monitoring elevated well temperatures and working to remedy the situation.

HCPH and HCDOES have a continued presence at the landfill monitoring air quality and investigating odor complaints. Air sampling of the areas surrounding the landfill does not indicate air pollution levels that would pose short or long term health effects.

To report an odor complaint 24 hours a day, call 513-946-7777.

Rumpke 2019 Odor Report

For more information and air quality sampling results, please visit the following Web sites:

Southwest Ohio Air Quality Agency

Ohio EPA


We receive frequent questions on the operation of landfills in Hamilton County.
The following Questions & Answers segment discusses many of inquiries we receive and is updated periodically. 

Has Rumpke ever received a notice of violation for failing to control odors? Yes, Rumpke Sanitary Landfill has been issued notices of violation on multiple occasions.

Though odor is a subjective and difficult to measure, a determination of compliance or non-compliance is assessed using the descriptive odor scale below. The compliance point for odor is generally an intensity and duration described as “moderate” or above.

 Odor Scale
No Odor Odor Not Detectable
Slight Odor present in the air, which activates the sense of smell and the characteristics may or may not be distinguishable and/or definite, but not objectionable in short durations.  This is characterized by occasional “whiffs” of odor, but is not persistent.
Moderate Odor present in the air, which easily activates the sense of smell, is very distinct and clearly distinguishable, tends to be objectionable and/or irritating, and is persistent in the community.
Strong Odor present in the air, which is objectionable and causes a person to attempt to avoid it completely.
Over-Powering Odor present in the air, which is so strong that it is overpowering and intolerable for any length of time.

How does HCPH process repeated complaints once an initial complaint is confirmed?  Are multiple notices of violation issued? If multiple complaints are received citing the same issue within a short period of time, they will be investigated concurrently. If confirmed and issuance of notice of violation is required or deemed necessary to ensure compliance, one notice of violation is issued per violation regardless of the number of complaints. Many of the violations we find are corrected on site and do not require follow-up visits of subsequent violation notices.

How is it determined what is causing an odor? What specific actions are taken? When conducting onsite inspections, whether related to odors or not, inspectors evaluate operations and how they may be affecting odor generation. Included in these inspections are: size of working face, type and condition of cover, and leaks in gas collection systems. Operators are instructed to correct these issues if/when discovered.  HCPH conducts routine inspections and assess odor sources during these inspections.  If a moderate odor is detected off-site, an on-site assessment of odor sources is conducted.

How often are inspections of Rumpke performed by HCPH?  A minimum of 26 routine inspections are performed each year.

Are these inspections scheduled?  With a few exceptions to ensure key staff are available during our site visit, inspections are not scheduled, they are unannounced.

Is there a trigger event for an inspection?  In addition to regular, unannounced inspections, complaints and/or off-site odors may trigger an inspection.  If moderate odors are confirmed off-site, an on-site inspection may be performed to determine the source(s) and controls in place to control odors.

Is there a schedule of consequences for a violation?   NOV’s generally require corrective actions be taken. Additional enforcement actions, such as civil penalties, referral to AGO, or Directors orders are determined on a case by case manner.

What discretion does the a local health department have in the issuance of notices of violations,  penalties and/or other consequences?  HCPH generally follows guidance from Ohio EPA on enforcement matters. HCPH always works to achieve compliance through education over enforcement as first option.  Many of the violations we find are corrected on site and do not require follow-up visits of subsequent violation notices.

What violations are serious enough to cause closure of a facility?  Many factors could lead to such a decision. Additional enforcement actions are determined on a case by case manner.

At what point does a nuisance become a criminal offense? Environmental regulations are civil based.  Violations are generally reviewed with Ohio EPA.  Should a violation not be resolved, it is then forwarded to the Hamilton County Prosecutor’s Office for assistance. All violations are reviewed on a case-by-case basis with respect to the level of involvement by the Prosecutor’s Office.

Who has oversight over HCPH’s inspection program? HCPH is on the Ohio EPA Director’s “approved list”.  Ohio EPA conducts annual audits of HCPH’s program to affirm concurrence with our findings.

Why is Rumpke not cited more frequently for failing to control odors?  The facility is operating in substantial compliance with the established rules for municipal solid waste landfills.

How frequently is air monitoring of the facility conducted by HCPH staff?  Every complaint receives a response.  Additionally, surveillance odor monitoring is conducted without complaints, minimum of weekly.



Transfer Stations:

Transfer stations are engineered facilities where small loads of solid waste are transferred to larger vehicles. Transfer stations reduce collection and hauling costs and are constructed to reduce risk to public health and safety.

Random inspections are conducted at transfer stations to: 

  • ensure general operational compliance with approved plans
  • identify potential and actual nuisance issues
  • review facility logs and paperwork
  • inspect for noise, odor, vector, litter and fire controls
  • check for acceptance of approved waste types

Health and safety design controls at transfer stations include: 

  • enclosed facility
  • concrete tipping floor (where collection vehicles unload)
  • leachate collection system

Transfer Station Licenses:

Closed Landfills

Hamilton County Public Health has mapped known former landfills in our jurisdiction for which we have limited records.  Although this report is complete to the best of our ability and available information, the absence of a site from this map is not conclusive evidence that it was never a dump site or landfill.  Users are encouraged to contract with a qualified professional to perform a detailed environmental site assessment prior to purchase or land development upon any site suspected of previous waste placement. If you have interest in a site on this map, you may make an appointment to view the existing records by calling the Waste Management Division at 513-946-7879.

2018 Closed Landfill Report


Additional Resources